Treaties and Agreements

NNSA is responsible for the negotiation and implementation of several key nonproliferation agreements, and provides policy and technical expertise in support of the development and implementation of a number of other bilateral and multilateral regimes, agreements, and treaties relating to nonproliferation and arms control.

NNSA conducts policy and technical analysis in support of the U.S. government to strengthen international mechanisms for preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.


Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is one of the foundations of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime.  The treaty entered into force 1970 and is nearly universal with close to 190 parties, and only India, Israel, and Pakistan remain non-parties (North Korea withdrew in early 2003).  The NPT defines nuclear-weapon states as states that manufactured or exploded a nuclear weapon prior to January 1, 1967, the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom or the "P-5".  All other states are defined by the treaty as non-nuclear-weapon states. 

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Arms Reduction Treaties

NNSA participates as a member of the implementation committees responsible for the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and the 2002 Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty with Russia (the Moscow Treaty).

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123 Agreements for Peaceful Cooperation

Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act requires the conclusion of a specific agreement for significant transfers of nuclear material, equipment, or components from the United States to another nation.  Section 123 Agreements are important tools in advancing U.S. nonproliferation principles.

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Non-Nuclear Treaties

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of
Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BWC) entered into force in 1975.  As party to the BWC, the United States has pledged not to develop, produce, stockpile, acquire, or retain biological agents or toxins of types and in quantities that have no justification for peaceful purposes.

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Plutonium Production Reactor Agreement

The 1997 U.S.-Russia Plutonium Production Reactor Agreement (PPRA) requires the cessation of plutonium production for use in nuclear weapons.  This is achieved through monitoring to assure that shut down plutonium production reactors in both countries do not resume operations.  NNSA also ensures that weapons-usable plutonium produced by the remaining operational reactors in Russia, estimated to be at least nine metric tons once it is all reprocessed, is placed in secure storage and remains accounted for until transferred to a disposition regime.  NNSA serves as the agreement's executive agent for the U.S. government, and is responsible for agreement monitoring in cooperation with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) off site link.

 

HEU Purchase Agreement

NNSA implements the nonproliferation transparency provisions of the 1993 U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement in order to properly complete the Agreement as planned in 2013.

 

Nuclear Suppliers and Group and Regimes

NNSA is responsible for providing key technical and policy support to the U.S. government's negotiating efforts within the multilateral nuclear export control regimes, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) Exporters Committee or (Zangger Committee).

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Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement and Transparancy

NNSA engages international partners to promote transparent weapons of mass destruction (WMD) reductions and effective verification through the development of technical capabilities and policy options to ensure adherence to treaties and agreements, and to verify declarations.